html

HTML spacings

Snippet

Different HTML spaces.

non breaking space :  
en space :   or  
em space :   or  
3-per-em space :  
4-per-em space :   
6-per-em space :   
figure space :   
punctuation space :   
thin space :   or  
hair space :  

Named HTML Entities in Alphabetical Order

Snippet
A
Á Á
 Â
´ ´
Æ Æ
À À
ℵ
Α Α
& &
∧
∠
Å Å
≈
à Ã
Ä Ä
B
„
Β Β
¦ ¦
•
C
∩
Ç Ç
¸ ¸
¢ ¢
Χ Χ
ˆ ˆ
♣
≅
© ©
↵
∪
¤ ¤
D
†
↓
° °
Δ Δ
♦
÷ ÷
E
É É
Ê Ê
È È
∅
 
 
Ε Ε
≡
Η Η
Ð Ð
Ë Ë
€
∃
F
ƒ ƒ
∀
½ ½
¼ ¼
¾ ¾
⁄
G
Γ Γ
≥
> >
H
↔
♥
…
I
Í Í
Î Î
¡ ¡
Ì Ì
ℑ
∞
∫
Ι Ι
¿ ¿
∈
Ï Ï
K
Κ Κ
L
Λ Λ
⟨
« «
←
⌈
“
≤
⌊
∗
◊
‎
‹
‘
< &lt;
M
¯ &macr;
&mdash;
µ &micro;
· &middot;
&minus;
Μ &Mu;
N
&nabla;
  &nbsp;
&ndash;
&ne;
&ni;
¬ &not;
&notin;
&nsub;
Ñ &Ntilde;
Ν &Nu;
O
Ó &Oacute;
Ô &Ocirc;
Π&OElig;
Ò &Ograve;
&oline;
Ω &Omega;
Ο &Omicron;
&oplus;
&or;
ª &ordf;
º &ordm;
Ø &Oslash;
Õ &Otilde;
&otimes;
Ö &Ouml;
P
&para;
&part;
&permil;
&perp;
Φ &Phi;
Π &Pi;
ϖ &piv;
± &plusmn;
£ &pound;
&prime;
&prod;
&prop;
Ψ &Psi;
Q
" &quot;
R
&radic;
&rang;
» &raquo;
&rarr;
&rceil;
&rdquo;
&real;
® &reg;
&rfloor;
Ρ &Rho;
&rlm;
&rsaquo;
&rsquo;
S
&sbquo;
Š &Scaron;
&sdot;
§ &sect;
­ &shy;
Σ &Sigma;
ς &sigmaf;
&sim;
&spades;
&sub;
&sube;
&sum;
&sup;
¹ &sup1;
² &sup2;
³ &sup3;
&supe;
ß &szlig;
T
Τ &Tau;
&there4;
Θ &Theta;
ϑ &thetasym;
&thinsp;
Þ &THORN;
˜ &tilde;
× &times;
&trade;
U
Ú &Uacute;
&uarr;
Û &Ucirc;
Ù &Ugrave;
¨ &uml;
ϒ &upsih;
Υ &Upsilon;
Ü &Uuml;
W
&weierp;
X
Ξ &Xi;
Y
Ý &Yacute;
¥ &yen;
ÿ &yuml;
Z
Ζ &Zeta;
&zwj;
&zwnj;
<yeah>

Using a protocol-independent absolute path

Snippet

If the browser is viewing an page in SSL through HTTPS, then it’ll request that asset with the https protocol, otherwise it’ll request it with HTTP.

<img src="//domain.com/img/logo.png"/>
 
Use the // ignoring the protocol.

HTML chars

Book page

From: http://liam.morland.ca/HTML_4_Entities.php

Character entity references in HTML 4

Character entity references in HTML 4

Character entity references allow one to use special characters, such as accented letters, in an HTML document. For example, if you want to include a letter "a" with an acute accent, type &aacute; into your HTML source. In your browser, this looks like: á. The tables below list all of the entities which can be used in an HTML 4 document.

Every entity has a name and a number. Each entry in the tables below consists of a named entity reference, followed by how that entity appears in your browser. Next is the numerical entity reference for the same character and how that appears in your browser. The final column is the description of the character. Normally a named entity reference and a numbered entity reference have the same appearance. However, in some browsers, certain characters can be referenced by number but not by name.

This document is an modified version of part of the HTML 4.01 specification published by the World Wide Web Consortium. Starting with the next paragraph, the text is the same. I added only the columns that show how an entity looks in your browser. Please refer to the original document for authoritative information.

Introduction to character entity references

A character entity reference is an SGML construct that references a character of the document character set.

This version of HTML supports several sets of character entity references:

The following sections present the complete lists of character entity references. Although, by convention, [ISO10646] the comments following each entry are usually written with uppercase letters, we have converted them to lowercase in this specification for reasons of readability.

Character entity references for ISO 8859-1 characters

The character entity references in this section produce characters whose numeric equivalents should already be supported by conforming HTML 2.0 user agents. Thus, the character entity reference &divide; is a more convenient form than &#247; for obtaining the division sign (÷).

To support these named entities, user agents need only recognize the entity names and convert them to characters that lie within the repertoire of [ISO88591].

Character 65533 (FFFD hexadecimal) is the last valid character in UCS-2. 65534 (FFFE hexadecimal) is unassigned and reserved as the byte-swapped version of ZERO WIDTH NON-BREAKING SPACE for byte-order detection purposes. 65535 (FFFF hexadecimal) is unassigned.

ISO 8859-1 characters for HTML
Portions © International Organization for Standardization 1986 Permission to copy in any form is granted for use with conforming SGML systems and applications as defined in ISO 8879, provided this notice is included in all copies.
Character entity set. Typical invocation:
<!ENTITY % HTMLlat1 PUBLIC
"-//W3C//ENTITIES Latin 1//EN//HTML">
%HTMLlat1;
&nbsp; &#160;  no-break space = non-breaking space, U+00A0 ISOnum
&iexcl;¡&#161;¡ inverted exclamation mark, U+00A1 ISOnum
&cent;¢&#162;¢ cent sign, U+00A2 ISOnum
&pound;£&#163;£ pound sign, U+00A3 ISOnum
&curren;¤&#164;¤ currency sign, U+00A4 ISOnum
&yen;¥&#165;¥ yen sign = yuan sign, U+00A5 ISOnum
&brvbar;¦&#166;¦ broken bar = broken vertical bar, U+00A6 ISOnum
&sect;§&#167;§ section sign, U+00A7 ISOnum
&uml;¨&#168;¨ diaeresis = spacing diaeresis, U+00A8 ISOdia
&copy;©&#169;© copyright sign, U+00A9 ISOnum
&ordf;ª&#170;ª feminine ordinal indicator, U+00AA ISOnum
&laquo;«&#171;« left-pointing double angle quotation mark = left pointing guillemet, U+00AB ISOnum
&not;¬&#172;¬ not sign, U+00AC ISOnum
&shy;­&#173;­ soft hyphen = discretionary hyphen, U+00AD ISOnum
&reg;®&#174;® registered sign = registered trade mark sign, U+00AE ISOnum
&macr;¯&#175;¯ macron = spacing macron = overline = APL overbar, U+00AF ISOdia
&deg;°&#176;° degree sign, U+00B0 ISOnum
&plusmn;±&#177;± plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign, U+00B1 ISOnum
&sup2;²&#178;² superscript two = superscript digit two = squared, U+00B2 ISOnum
&sup3;³&#179;³ superscript three = superscript digit three = cubed, U+00B3 ISOnum
&acute;´&#180;´ acute accent = spacing acute, U+00B4 ISOdia
&micro;µ&#181;µ micro sign, U+00B5 ISOnum
&para;&#182;pilcrow sign = paragraph sign, U+00B6 ISOnum
&middot;·&#183;· middle dot = Georgian comma = Greek middle dot, U+00B7 ISOnum
&cedil;¸&#184;¸ cedilla = spacing cedilla, U+00B8 ISOdia
&sup1;¹&#185;¹ superscript one = superscript digit one, U+00B9 ISOnum
&ordm;º&#186;º masculine ordinal indicator, U+00BA ISOnum
&raquo;»&#187;» right-pointing double angle quotation mark = right pointing guillemet, U+00BB ISOnum
&frac14;¼&#188;¼ vulgar fraction one quarter = fraction one quarter, U+00BC ISOnum
&frac12;½&#189;½ vulgar fraction one half = fraction one half, U+00BD ISOnum
&frac34;¾&#190;¾ vulgar fraction three quarters = fraction three quarters, U+00BE ISOnum
&iquest;¿&#191;¿ inverted question mark = turned question mark, U+00BF ISOnum
&Agrave;À&#192;À latin capital letter A with grave = latin capital letter A grave, U+00C0 ISOlat1
&Aacute;Á&#193;Á latin capital letter A with acute, U+00C1 ISOlat1
&Acirc;Â&#194;Â latin capital letter A with circumflex, U+00C2 ISOlat1
&Atilde;Ã&#195;Ã latin capital letter A with tilde, U+00C3 ISOlat1
&Auml;Ä&#196;Ä latin capital letter A with diaeresis, U+00C4 ISOlat1
&Aring;Å&#197;Å latin capital letter A with ring above = latin capital letter A ring, U+00C5 ISOlat1
&AElig;Æ&#198;Æ latin capital letter AE = latin capital ligature AE, U+00C6 ISOlat1
&Ccedil;Ç&#199;Ç latin capital letter C with cedilla, U+00C7 ISOlat1
&Egrave;È&#200;È latin capital letter E with grave, U+00C8 ISOlat1
&Eacute;É&#201;É latin capital letter E with acute, U+00C9 ISOlat1
&Ecirc;Ê&#202;Ê latin capital letter E with circumflex, U+00CA ISOlat1
&Euml;Ë&#203;Ë latin capital letter E with diaeresis, U+00CB ISOlat1
&Igrave;Ì&#204;Ì latin capital letter I with grave, U+00CC ISOlat1
&Iacute;Í&#205;Í latin capital letter I with acute, U+00CD ISOlat1
&Icirc;Î&#206;Î latin capital letter I with circumflex, U+00CE ISOlat1
&Iuml;Ï&#207;Ï latin capital letter I with diaeresis, U+00CF ISOlat1
&ETH;Ð&#208;Ð latin capital letter ETH, U+00D0 ISOlat1
&Ntilde;Ñ&#209;Ñ latin capital letter N with tilde, U+00D1 ISOlat1
&Ograve;Ò&#210;Ò latin capital letter O with grave, U+00D2 ISOlat1
&Oacute;Ó&#211;Ó latin capital letter O with acute, U+00D3 ISOlat1
&Ocirc;Ô&#212;Ô latin capital letter O with circumflex, U+00D4 ISOlat1
&Otilde;Õ&#213;Õ latin capital letter O with tilde, U+00D5 ISOlat1
&Ouml;Ö&#214;Ö latin capital letter O with diaeresis, U+00D6 ISOlat1
&times;×&#215;× multiplication sign, U+00D7 ISOnum
&Oslash;Ø&#216;Ø latin capital letter O with stroke = latin capital letter O slash, U+00D8 ISOlat1
&Ugrave;Ù&#217;Ù latin capital letter U with grave, U+00D9 ISOlat1
&Uacute;Ú&#218;Ú latin capital letter U with acute, U+00DA ISOlat1
&Ucirc;Û&#219;Û latin capital letter U with circumflex, U+00DB ISOlat1
&Uuml;Ü&#220;Ü latin capital letter U with diaeresis, U+00DC ISOlat1
&Yacute;Ý&#221;Ý latin capital letter Y with acute, U+00DD ISOlat1
&THORN;Þ&#222;Þ latin capital letter THORN, U+00DE ISOlat1
&szlig;ß&#223;ß latin small letter sharp s = ess-zed, U+00DF ISOlat1
&agrave;à&#224;à latin small letter a with grave = latin small letter a grave, U+00E0 ISOlat1
&aacute;á&#225;á latin small letter a with acute, U+00E1 ISOlat1
&acirc;â&#226;â latin small letter a with circumflex, U+00E2 ISOlat1
&atilde;ã&#227;ã latin small letter a with tilde, U+00E3 ISOlat1
&auml;ä&#228;ä latin small letter a with diaeresis, U+00E4 ISOlat1
&aring;å&#229;å latin small letter a with ring above = latin small letter a ring, U+00E5 ISOlat1
&aelig;æ&#230;æ latin small letter ae = latin small ligature ae, U+00E6 ISOlat1
&ccedil;ç&#231;ç latin small letter c with cedilla, U+00E7 ISOlat1
&egrave;è&#232;è latin small letter e with grave, U+00E8 ISOlat1
&eacute;é&#233;é latin small letter e with acute, U+00E9 ISOlat1
&ecirc;ê&#234;ê latin small letter e with circumflex, U+00EA ISOlat1
&euml;ë&#235;ë latin small letter e with diaeresis, U+00EB ISOlat1
&igrave;ì&#236;ì latin small letter i with grave, U+00EC ISOlat1
&iacute;í&#237;í latin small letter i with acute, U+00ED ISOlat1
&icirc;î&#238;î latin small letter i with circumflex, U+00EE ISOlat1
&iuml;ï&#239;ï latin small letter i with diaeresis, U+00EF ISOlat1
&eth;ð&#240;ð latin small letter eth, U+00F0 ISOlat1
&ntilde;ñ&#241;ñ latin small letter n with tilde, U+00F1 ISOlat1
&ograve;ò&#242;ò latin small letter o with grave, U+00F2 ISOlat1
&oacute;ó&#243;ó latin small letter o with acute, U+00F3 ISOlat1
&ocirc;ô&#244;ô latin small letter o with circumflex, U+00F4 ISOlat1
&otilde;õ&#245;õ latin small letter o with tilde, U+00F5 ISOlat1
&ouml;ö&#246;ö latin small letter o with diaeresis, U+00F6 ISOlat1
&divide;÷&#247;÷ division sign, U+00F7 ISOnum
&oslash;ø&#248;ø latin small letter o with stroke, = latin small letter o slash, U+00F8 ISOlat1
&ugrave;ù&#249;ù latin small letter u with grave, U+00F9 ISOlat1
&uacute;ú&#250;ú latin small letter u with acute, U+00FA ISOlat1
&ucirc;û&#251;û latin small letter u with circumflex, U+00FB ISOlat1
&uuml;ü&#252;ü latin small letter u with diaeresis, U+00FC ISOlat1
&yacute;ý&#253;ý latin small letter y with acute, U+00FD ISOlat1
&thorn;þ&#254;þ latin small letter thorn, U+00FE ISOlat1
&yuml;ÿ&#255;ÿ latin small letter y with diaeresis, U+00FF ISOlat1

Character entity references for symbols, mathematical symbols, and Greek letters

The character entity references in this section produce characters that may be represented by glyphs in the widely available Adobe Symbol font, including Greek characters, various bracketing symbols, and a selection of mathematical operators such as gradient, product, and summation symbols.

To support these entities, user agents may support full [ISO10646] or use other means. Display of glyphs for these characters may be obtained by being able to display the relevant [ISO10646] characters or by other means, such as internally mapping the listed entities, numeric character references, and characters to the appropriate position in some font that contains the requisite glyphs.

When to use Greek entities. This entity set contains all the letters used in modern Greek. However, it does not include Greek punctuation, precomposed accented characters nor the non-spacing accents (tonos, dialytika) required to compose them. There are no archaic letters, Coptic-unique letters, or precomposed letters for Polytonic Greek. The entities defined here are not intended for the representation of modern Greek text and would not be an efficient representation; rather, they are intended for occasional Greek letters used in technical and mathematical works.

Mathematical, Greek and Symbolic characters for HTML
Character entity set. Typical invocation:
<!ENTITY % HTMLsymbol PUBLIC
"-//W3C//ENTITIES Symbols//EN//HTML">
%HTMLsymbol;
Portions © International Organization for Standardization 1986: Permission to copy in any form is granted for use with conforming SGML systems and applications as defined in ISO 8879, provided this notice is included in all copies.
Relevant ISO entity set is given unless names are newly introduced. New names (i.e., not in ISO 8879 list) do not clash with any existing ISO 8879 entity names. ISO 10646 character numbers are given for each character, in hex. CDATA values are decimal conversions of the ISO 10646 values and refer to the document character set. Names are ISO 10646 names.
Latin Extended-B
&fnof;ƒ&#402;ƒ latin small f with hook = function = florin, U+0192 ISOtech
Greek
&Alpha;Α&#913;Α greek capital letter alpha, U+0391
&Beta;Β&#914;Β greek capital letter beta, U+0392
&Gamma;Γ&#915;Γ greek capital letter gamma, U+0393 ISOgrk3
&Delta;Δ&#916;Δ greek capital letter delta, U+0394 ISOgrk3
&Epsilon;Ε&#917;Ε greek capital letter epsilon, U+0395
&Zeta;Ζ&#918;Ζ greek capital letter zeta, U+0396
&Eta;Η&#919;Η greek capital letter eta, U+0397
&Theta;Θ&#920;Θ greek capital letter theta, U+0398 ISOgrk3
&Iota;Ι&#921;Ι greek capital letter iota, U+0399
&Kappa;Κ&#922;Κ greek capital letter kappa, U+039A
&Lambda;Λ&#923;Λ greek capital letter lambda, U+039B ISOgrk3
&Mu;Μ&#924;Μ greek capital letter mu, U+039C
&Nu;Ν&#925;Ν greek capital letter nu, U+039D
&Xi;Ξ&#926;Ξ greek capital letter xi, U+039E ISOgrk3
&Omicron;Ο&#927;Ο greek capital letter omicron, U+039F
&Pi;Π&#928;Π greek capital letter pi, U+03A0 ISOgrk3
&Rho;Ρ&#929;Ρ greek capital letter rho, U+03A1
&Sigma;Σ&#931;Σ greek capital letter sigma, U+03A3 ISOgrk3 -- there is no Sigmaf, and no U+03A2 character either
&Tau;Τ&#932;Τ greek capital letter tau, U+03A4
&Upsilon;Υ&#933;Υ greek capital letter upsilon, U+03A5 ISOgrk3
&Phi;Φ&#934;Φ greek capital letter phi, U+03A6 ISOgrk3
&Chi;Χ&#935;Χ greek capital letter chi, U+03A7
&Psi;Ψ&#936;Ψ greek capital letter psi, U+03A8 ISOgrk3
&Omega;Ω&#937;Ω greek capital letter omega, U+03A9 ISOgrk3
&alpha;α&#945;α greek small letter alpha, U+03B1 ISOgrk3
&beta;β&#946;β greek small letter beta, U+03B2 ISOgrk3
&gamma;γ&#947;γ greek small letter gamma, U+03B3 ISOgrk3
&delta;δ&#948;δ greek small letter delta, U+03B4 ISOgrk3
&epsilon;ε&#949;ε greek small letter epsilon, U+03B5 ISOgrk3
&zeta;ζ&#950;ζ greek small letter zeta, U+03B6 ISOgrk3
&eta;η&#951;η greek small letter eta, U+03B7 ISOgrk3
&theta;θ&#952;θ greek small letter theta, U+03B8 ISOgrk3
&iota;ι&#953;ι greek small letter iota, U+03B9 ISOgrk3
&kappa;κ&#954;κ greek small letter kappa, U+03BA ISOgrk3
&lambda;λ&#955;λ greek small letter lambda, U+03BB ISOgrk3
&mu;μ&#956;μ greek small letter mu, U+03BC ISOgrk3
&nu;ν&#957;ν greek small letter nu, U+03BD ISOgrk3
&xi;ξ&#958;ξ greek small letter xi, U+03BE ISOgrk3
&omicron;ο&#959;ο greek small letter omicron, U+03BF NEW
&pi;π&#960;π greek small letter pi, U+03C0 ISOgrk3
&rho;ρ&#961;ρ greek small letter rho, U+03C1 ISOgrk3
&sigmaf;ς&#962;ς greek small letter final sigma, U+03C2 ISOgrk3
&sigma;σ&#963;σ greek small letter sigma, U+03C3 ISOgrk3
&tau;τ&#964;τ greek small letter tau, U+03C4 ISOgrk3
&upsilon;υ&#965;υ greek small letter upsilon, U+03C5 ISOgrk3
&phi;φ&#966;φ greek small letter phi, U+03C6 ISOgrk3
&chi;χ&#967;χ greek small letter chi, U+03C7 ISOgrk3
&psi;ψ&#968;ψ greek small letter psi, U+03C8 ISOgrk3
&omega;ω&#969;ω greek small letter omega, U+03C9 ISOgrk3
&thetasym;ϑ&#977;ϑ greek small letter theta symbol, U+03D1 NEW
&upsih;ϒ&#978;ϒ greek upsilon with hook symbol, U+03D2 NEW
&piv;ϖ&#982;ϖ greek pi symbol, U+03D6 ISOgrk3
General Punctuation
&bull;&#8226;bullet = black small circle, U+2022 ISOpub -- bullet is NOT the same as bullet operator, U+2219
&hellip;&#8230;horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader, U+2026 ISOpub
&prime;&#8242;prime = minutes = feet, U+2032 ISOtech
&Prime;&#8243;double prime = seconds = inches, U+2033 ISOtech
&oline;&#8254;overline = spacing overscore, U+203E NEW
&frasl;&#8260;fraction slash, U+2044 NEW
Letterlike Symbols
&weierp;&#8472;script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p, U+2118 ISOamso
&image;&#8465;blackletter capital I = imaginary part, U+2111 ISOamso
&real;&#8476;blackletter capital R = real part symbol, U+211C ISOamso
&trade;&#8482;trade mark sign, U+2122 ISOnum
&alefsym;&#8501;alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal, U+2135 NEW -- alef symbol is NOT the same as hebrew letter alef, U+05D0 although the same glyph could be used to depict both characters
Arrows
&larr;&#8592;leftwards arrow, U+2190 ISOnum
&uarr;&#8593;upwards arrow, U+2191 ISOnum
&rarr;&#8594;rightwards arrow, U+2192 ISOnum
&darr;&#8595;downwards arrow, U+2193 ISOnum
&harr;&#8596;left right arrow, U+2194 ISOamsa
&crarr;&#8629;downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return, U+21B5 NEW
&lArr;&#8656;leftwards double arrow, U+21D0 ISOtech -- ISO 10646 does not say that lArr is the same as the 'is implied by' arrow but also does not have any other character for that function. So ? lArr can be used for 'is implied by' as ISOtech suggests
&uArr;&#8657;upwards double arrow, U+21D1 ISOamsa
&rArr;&#8658;rightwards double arrow, U+21D2 ISOtech -- ISO 10646 does not say this is the 'implies' character but does not have another character with this function so ? rArr can be used for 'implies' as ISOtech suggests
&dArr;&#8659;downwards double arrow, U+21D3 ISOamsa
&hArr;&#8660;left right double arrow, U+21D4 ISOamsa
Mathematical Operators
&forall;&#8704;for all, U+2200 ISOtech
&part;&#8706;partial differential, U+2202 ISOtech
&exist;&#8707;there exists, U+2203 ISOtech
&empty;&#8709;empty set = null set = diameter, U+2205 ISOamso
&nabla;&#8711;nabla = backward difference, U+2207 ISOtech
&isin;&#8712;element of, U+2208 ISOtech
&notin;&#8713;not an element of, U+2209 ISOtech
&ni;&#8715;contains as member, U+220B ISOtech -- should there be a more memorable name than 'ni'?
&prod;&#8719;n-ary product = product sign, U+220F ISOamsb -- prod is NOT the same character as U+03A0 'greek capital letter pi' though the same glyph might be used for both
&sum;&#8721;n-ary sumation, U+2211 ISOamsb -- sum is NOT the same character as U+03A3 'greek capital letter sigma' though the same glyph might be used for both
&minus;&#8722;minus sign, U+2212 ISOtech
&lowast;&#8727;asterisk operator, U+2217 ISOtech
&radic;&#8730;square root = radical sign, U+221A ISOtech
&prop;&#8733;proportional to, U+221D ISOtech
&infin;&#8734;infinity, U+221E ISOtech
&ang;&#8736;angle, U+2220 ISOamso
&and;&#8743;logical and = wedge, U+2227 ISOtech
&or;&#8744;logical or = vee, U+2228 ISOtech
&cap;&#8745;intersection = cap, U+2229 ISOtech
&cup;&#8746;union = cup, U+222A ISOtech
&int;&#8747;integral, U+222B ISOtech
&there4;&#8756;therefore, U+2234 ISOtech
&sim;&#8764;tilde operator = varies with = similar to, U+223C ISOtech -- tilde operator is NOT the same character as the tilde, U+007E, although the same glyph might be used to represent both
&cong;&#8773;approximately equal to, U+2245 ISOtech
&asymp;&#8776;almost equal to = asymptotic to, U+2248 ISOamsr
&ne;&#8800;not equal to, U+2260 ISOtech
&equiv;&#8801;identical to, U+2261 ISOtech
&le;&#8804;less-than or equal to, U+2264 ISOtech
&ge;&#8805;greater-than or equal to, U+2265 ISOtech
&sub;&#8834;subset of, U+2282 ISOtech
&sup;&#8835;superset of, U+2283 ISOtech -- note that nsup, 'not a superset of, U+2283' is not covered by the Symbol font encoding and is not included. Should it be, for symmetry? It is in ISOamsn
&nsub;&#8836;not a subset of, U+2284 ISOamsn
&sube;&#8838;subset of or equal to, U+2286 ISOtech
&supe;&#8839;superset of or equal to, U+2287 ISOtech
&oplus;&#8853;circled plus = direct sum, U+2295 ISOamsb
&otimes;&#8855;circled times = vector product, U+2297 ISOamsb
&perp;&#8869;up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular, U+22A5 ISOtech
&sdot;&#8901;dot operator, U+22C5 ISOamsb -- dot operator is NOT the same character as U+00B7 middle dot
Miscellaneous Technical
&lceil;&#8968;left ceiling = apl upstile, U+2308 ISOamsc
&rceil;&#8969;right ceiling, U+2309 ISOamsc
&lfloor;&#8970;left floor = apl downstile, U+230A ISOamsc
&rfloor;&#8971;right floor, U+230B ISOamsc
&lang;&#9001;left-pointing angle bracket = bra, U+2329 ISOtech -- lang is NOT the same character as U+003C 'less than' or U+2039 'single left-pointing angle quotation mark'
&rang;&#9002;right-pointing angle bracket = ket, U+232A ISOtech -- rang is NOT the same character as U+003E 'greater than' or U+203A 'single right-pointing angle quotation mark'
Geometric Shapes
&loz;&#9674;lozenge, U+25CA ISOpub
Miscellaneous Symbols
&spades;&#9824;black spade suit, U+2660 ISOpub -- black here seems to mean filled as opposed to hollow
&clubs;&#9827;black club suit = shamrock, U+2663 ISOpub
&hearts;&#9829;black heart suit = valentine, U+2665 ISOpub
&diams;&#9830;black diamond suit, U+2666 ISOpub

Character entity references for markup-significant and internationalization characters

The character entity references in this section are for escaping markup-significant characters (these are the same as those in HTML 2.0 and 3.2), for denoting spaces and dashes. Other characters in this section apply to internationalization issues such as the disambiguation of bidirectional text (see the section on bidirectional text for details).

Entities have also been added for the remaining characters occurring in CP-1252 which do not occur in the HTMLlat1 or HTMLsymbol entity sets. These all occur in the 128 to 159 range within the CP-1252 charset. These entities permit the characters to be denoted in a platform-independent manner.

To support these entities, user agents may support full [ISO10646] or use other means. Display of glyphs for these characters may be obtained by being able to display the relevant [ISO10646] characters or by other means, such as internally mapping the listed entities, numeric character references, and characters to the appropriate position in some font that contains the requisite glyphs.

Special characters for HTML
Character entity set. Typical invocation:
<!ENTITY % HTMLspecial PUBLIC
"-//W3C//ENTITIES Special//EN//HTML">
%HTMLspecial;
Portions © International Organization for Standardization 1986: Permission to copy in any form is granted for use with conforming SGML systems and applications as defined in ISO 8879, provided this notice is included in all copies.
Relevant ISO entity set is given unless names are newly introduced. New names (i.e., not in ISO 8879 list) do not clash with any existing ISO 8879 entity names. ISO 10646 character numbers are given for each character, in hex. CDATA values are decimal conversions of the ISO 10646 values and refer to the document character set. Names are ISO 10646 names.
C0 Controls and Basic Latin
&quot;"&#34;" quotation mark = APL quote, U+0022 ISOnum
&amp;&&#38;& ampersand, U+0026 ISOnum
&lt;<&#60;< less-than sign, U+003C ISOnum
&gt;>&#62;> greater-than sign, U+003E ISOnum
Latin Extended-A
&OElig;Œ&#338;Œ latin capital ligature OE, U+0152 ISOlat2
&oelig;œ&#339;œ latin small ligature oe, U+0153 ISOlat2 -- ligature is a misnomer, this is a separate character in some languages
&Scaron;Š&#352;Š latin capital letter S with caron, U+0160 ISOlat2
&scaron;š&#353;š latin small letter s with caron, U+0161 ISOlat2
&Yuml;Ÿ&#376;Ÿ latin capital letter Y with diaeresis, U+0178 ISOlat2
Spacing Modifier Letters
&circ;ˆ&#710;ˆ modifier letter circumflex accent, U+02C6 ISOpub
&tilde;˜&#732;˜ small tilde, U+02DC ISOdia
General Punctuation
&ensp;&#8194;en space, U+2002 ISOpub
&emsp;&#8195;em space, U+2003 ISOpub
&thinsp;&#8201;thin space, U+2009 ISOpub
&zwnj;&#8204;zero width non-joiner, U+200C NEW RFC 2070
&zwj;&#8205;zero width joiner, U+200D NEW RFC 2070
&lrm;&#8206;left-to-right mark, U+200E NEW RFC 2070
&rlm;&#8207;right-to-left mark, U+200F NEW RFC 2070
&ndash;&#8211;en dash, U+2013 ISOpub
&mdash;&#8212;em dash, U+2014 ISOpub
&lsquo;&#8216;left single quotation mark, U+2018 ISOnum
&rsquo;&#8217;right single quotation mark, U+2019 ISOnum
&sbquo;&#8218;single low-9 quotation mark, U+201A NEW
&ldquo;&#8220;left double quotation mark, U+201C ISOnum
&rdquo;&#8221;right double quotation mark, U+201D ISOnum
&bdquo;&#8222;double low-9 quotation mark, U+201E NEW
&dagger;&#8224;dagger, U+2020 ISOpub
&Dagger;&#8225;double dagger, U+2021 ISOpub
&permil;&#8240;per mille sign, U+2030 ISOtech
&lsaquo;&#8249;single left-pointing angle quotation mark, U+2039 ISO proposed -- lsaquo is proposed but not yet ISO standardized
&rsaquo;&#8250;single right-pointing angle quotation mark, U+203A ISO proposed -- rsaquo is proposed but not yet ISO standardized
&euro;&#8364;euro sign, U+20AC NEW

Writing better link text

Book page

From: http://www.evolt.org/article/Writing_effective_link_text/4090/60343/index.html

Writing effective link text : evolt.org, IA/Usability

Writing effective link text

Author: trenton (evolt@webcredible.co.uk);
07/23/2004;
found in IA/Usability

When I was younger I used to love reading choose-your-own adventure books. Instead of reading the book from start to finish I could make the decisions for the main character and ultimately decide the outcome of the book. The Internet is essentially the same, except it's the largest choose-your-own-adventure book ever with literally billions of pages to choose from.

Why is link text so important?

Because of this unique ‘choose-your-own adventure’ way the Internet is structured, it's essential that we can find and understand links quickly. Most pages we visit on the web don't contain the information we're looking for, but merely help us find the page we want. Think about the process you go through to find information on the web:

  • You go to a website
  • You scan the page looking for a link that might take you where you want to go
  • You follow the link and scan this new page looking for the information you're after
  • If you can't find what you want you scan through the links on this page and click on one
  • And so on until you find what you're looking for (or until you give up!)

I can recall situations where I've spent up to 20 or 30 minutes just searching for something on the Internet, every few seconds clicking on links that I was desperately hoping would take me to the information I was looking for. If I could have easily found those links and quickly understood their destination maybe I wouldn't have had to search for so long.

So, we've established that it's important for link text to be easy to find and understand. So what can you do to achieve this goal? Simple. Follow these six guidelines for how to write effective link text and your site visitors will be able to find what they're looking for quickly and efficiently.

1. Contrast link text colour and regular text colour

In order to be able to easily spot them, links should be a different colour to the rest of the text on the page. Sounds pretty obvious but it's truly amazing how many websites don't do this. This is most common in corporate websites who decide to have black text and black link text.

By far the most common colour combination is black text with blue link text, but it's certainly not necessary to follow this. To avoid confusion though, it is probably best to avoid making regular text blue and/or link text black.

Some usability experts insist that link text has to be blue as blue is the most common link colour on the web. They argue that Internet users become accustomed to certain conventions and every website should follow these conventions or fear confusing their visitors. However, there are enough websites with non-blue link text for this to not be labeled as a convention so it could be argued their reasoning isn't sound.

2. Underline link text

When we scan down pages any horizontal line cuts right through our vertical line of scanning. The underline below link text is an example of this so it's really advisable to include those underlines with link text. Additionally, underlining link text can be beneficial to the one in 20 colour blind people and users with poor vision. One quick tip: Never, ever, under any circumstances, underline non-link text.

It's not always necessary to underline links in navigation menus because they only contain links. When we look at navigation menus we therefore don't have to make the distinction between link and non-link text.

3. Ensure link text is descriptive of its destination

We scan web pages looking for the information that we're after. Have a quick look at the following two paragraphs:

The first thing that stands out in the first paragraph is ‘click here’. By itself, ‘click here’ is completely meaningless and its use should be avoided like the plague. The second paragraph is far superior as when you scan it you can instantly work out the link destination. You can then decide whether to click it or not without having to read any of the surrounding text.

4. Make visited links change colour

By changing the colour of visited links users are provided with a visual clue as to where they've already been on your website. This is essential if you want to allow visitors to freely explore your site without continually going back to where they've already been - a frustrating experience and one that's sure to encourage them to go elsewhere.

It's also important to choose effective colours for unvisited and visited links. Look at these three examples:

The first one is the best as it's the browser default value and people are most accustomed to it.

The second one is fine too. If you don't use the default blue/purple colour scheme then make the visited link text appear less bright and saturated so that unvisited link text stands out above it - this has become quite common on the web so is perfectly acceptable.

The third example is not effective at all. Although the two colours are different, after visiting a few pages users may get confused as to which are the visited and which the unvisited links.

One other thing to be aware of: to prevent confusion, wherever possible avoid using purple for unvisited links and/or blue for visited links.

5. Limit link text to a maximum of four words

When web pages appear we scan them, looking for the link that will take us to the information we're after. When we scan we only spend a split-second looking at the text contained in any link, so it's really difficult to quickly take in the content if there are more than five words in the link text.

Usually it's really easy to reduce the number of words within the link. For example, we can change:

Find out more about next week's conference

to

Find out more about next week's conference

If you really can't convey the meaning of a link in less than four words, be ruthless! Include the most important words and remove the other words from the link, keeping them in the same place in the sentence. When users scan the screen they'll be able to understand the basic meaning of the link and can then read the words around it. They can then out if the link really will take them to the destination they want to go to.

6. Place important words at the front of link text

When scanning web pages for the link we're after, the first words we see are the words at the front of the link text. We may not even see any of the words after the opening two words. So, to improve the above example even more, we can change:

Find out more about next week's conference

to

Find out more about the conference next week

The word conveying the most useful information to the reader, ‘conference’, is at the front of the link text and is now the most likely to be seen by our site visitors scanning the page.

Conclusion

Link text is really important. They're what make the Internet what it is. Links allow us to choose our own adventure on the Internet. Follow these guidelines and your links will be easy to find and understand quickly, for which your site visitors will surely thank you.